彡↘ Introduction To clinical Anatomy ↙彡 | " "

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    Anatomy is the study of the structure of the body and its one of the oldest basic medical sciences; it was first studied formally in Egypt


    The earliest descriptions of anatomy were written on papyruses (paper reed) between 3000 and 2500 B.C.E. Much later, human anatomy was taught in Greece by Hippocrates who is regarded as the Father of Medicine and a founder of the science of anatomy. In addition to the Hippocratic Oath, Hippocrates wrote several books on anatomy. In one he stated," The nature of the body is the beginning of medical science. " Aristotle was the first person to use the term anatome, a Greek word meaning " cutting up or taking apart. "The Latin word "dissecare " has a similar meaning


    Andreas Vesalius's masterpiece " De Humani Corporis Fabrica " , published in 1543, marked a new era in the history of medicine. At that time, the study of anatomy became an objective discipline based on direct observations as well as scientific principles. Vesalius recognized anatomy
    " as the firm foundation of the whole art of medicine and its essential preliminary."

    Hieronymus Fabricius (1537 - 1619) was responsible for the construction in 1594 of the famous anatomical theater at Padua. He was one of the teachers of William Harvey, and it is believed that Fabricius's discovery of the valves in the veins led Harvey to the discovery of the circulation of blood. The publication in 1628 of Harvey's book Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus, on the movements of the heart and the circulation of blood in animals, represents a milestone in the history of medicine (Persaud, 1997). By the 17th century, human dissections became an important feature in European medical schools, and anatomical museums were established in many cities.
    During the 18th and 19th centuries, anatomists published impressive treatises and lavish atlases with illustrations that introduced new standards for depicting the human body. The shortage of cadavers for dissection and anatomical demonstrations led to illegal means of obtaining human bodies. Professional grave robbers supplied anatomy schools with corpses, in some cases by murdering their victims. Medical students and their teachers had also been involved in body snatching (Persaud, 1997). In Britain, the Anatomy Act was passed by Parliament in 1832. It made legal provisions for medical schools to receive unclaimed and donated bodies for anatomical studies. This paved the way for similar legislation in other countries







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    Anatomy is the setting (structure) in which the events (functions) of life occur. Although historically and strictly speaking the primary concern of anatomy is structure, true understanding results when structure and function are considered together. Modern anatomy is functional anatomy. the examination of structures of the human that can be seen without a microscope. The three main approaches to studying anatomy are regional, systemic, and clinical (applied), reflecting the body's organization and the priorities and purposes for studying it.





    Regional anatomy (topographical anatomy) considers the organization of the human body as segments or major parts based on form and mass (Fig. I.1): a main body, consisting of the head, neck, and trunk (subdivided into thorax, abdomen, back, and pelvis/perineum), and paired upper limbs and lower limbs. All the major parts may be further subdivided into regions and zones. Regional anatomy is the method of studying the body's structure by focusing attention on a specific part (e.g., the head), region (the face), or subregion (the orbit); examining the arrangement and relationships of the various systemic structures (muscles, nerves, arteries, etc.) within it; and then usually continuing to study adjacent regions in an ordered sequence. It is the approach followed in this book, with each chapter addressing the anatomy of a major part of the body, and the approach usually taken in advanced anatomy courses that have a laboratory component involving dissection. When studying anatomy by this approach, it is important to make the effort routinely to put the regional anatomy into the context of that of adjacent regions and of the body as a whole.
    Regional anatomy also recognizes the body's organization by layers: skin, subcutaneous tissue, and deep fascia covering the deeper structures of muscles, skeleton, and cavities, which contain viscera (internal organs). Many of these deeper structures are partially evident beneath the body's outer covering and may be studied and examined in living individuals via surface anatomy.
    Surface anatomy is an essential part of the study of regional anatomy. It is specifically addressed in this book in " surface anatomy sections " (orange background) that provide knowledge of what lies under the skin and what structures are perceptible to touch (palpable) in the living body at rest and in action. We can learn much by observing the external form and surface of the body and observing or feeling the superficial aspects of structures beneath its surface. The aim of this method is to visualize (recall distinct mental images of) structures that confer contour to the surface or are palpable beneath it and, in clinical practice, to distinguish any unusual or abnormal findings. In other words, surface anatomy requires a thorough understanding of the anatomy of the structures beneath the surface. In people with stab wounds, for example, a physician must be able to visualize the deep structures that might be injured. Knowledge of surface anatomy can also decrease the need to memorize facts because the body is always available to observe and palpate

    Physical examination is the clinical application of surface anatomy. Palpation is a clinical technique for examining living anatomy. Palpation of arterial pulses, for instance, is part of routine physical examinations. Students of many of the health sciences will learn to use instruments to facilitate examination of the body (such as an ophthalmoscope to observe features of the eyes) and to listen to functioning parts of the body (a stethoscope to listen to the heart and lungs). A reflex hammer may be used to examine the functional state of nerves and muscles. When reading the surface anatomy sections in this text, make an effort to associate living anatomy with the anatomy you learn from lectures, dissection, and/or demonstrations
    Regional study of deep structures and abnormalities in a living person is now also possible by means of radiological imaging. Radiographic anatomy provides useful information about normal structures in living individuals, as affected by muscle tone, body fluids and pressures, and gravity; diagnostic radiology reveals the effects of trauma, pathology, and aging on normal structures







    Systemic anatomy recognizes the organization of the body's organs into systems or collective apparatuses that work together to carry out complex functions; thus it is a sequential study of the functional systems of the body. The basic systems and the field of study or treatment of each (in parentheses) are

    The integumentary system (dermatology) consists of the skin (L. integumentum, a covering) and its appendages " hair, nails, and sweat glands, for example " and the subcutaneous tissue just beneath it. The skin, an extensive sensory organ, forms the body's outer, protective covering and container

    The skeletal system (osteology) consists of bones and cartilage; it provides our basic shape and support for the body and is what the muscular system acts on to produce movement. It also protects vital organs such as the heart, lungs, and pelvic organs

    The articular system (arthrology) consists of joints and their associated ligaments, connecting the bony parts of the skeletal system and providing the sites at which movements occur


    The muscular system (myology) consists of muscles that act (contract) to move or position parts of the body
    e.g. the bones that articulate at joints

    The nervous system (neurology) consists of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system (nerves and ganglia, together with their motor and sensory endings). The nervous system controls and coordinates the functions of the organ systems, enabling the body's responses to and activities within its environment

    The circulatory system (angiology) consists of the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems, which function in parallel to transport the body's fluids



    The cardiovascular system (cardiology) consists of the heart and blood vessels that propel and conduct blood through the body, delivering oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to cells and removing their waste products

    The lymphatic system is a network of lymphatic vessels that withdraws excess tissue fluid (lymph) from the body's interstitial (intercellular) fluid compartment, filters it through lymph nodes, and returns it to the bloodstream

    The digestive or alimentary system (gastroenterology) consists of the organs and glands associated with ingestion, mastication (chewing), deglutition (swallowing), digestion, and absorption of food and the elimination of feces (solid waste) remaining after the nutrients have been absorbed

    The respiratory system (pulmonology) consists of the air passages and lungs that supply oxygen to the blood for cellular respiration and eliminate carbon dioxide from it. The diaphragm and larynx control the flow of air through the system, which may also produce tone in the larynx that is further modified by the tongue, teeth, and lips into speech

    The urinary system (urology) consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra, which filter blood and subsequently produce, transport, store, and intermittently excrete urine .... liquid waste

    The reproductive or genital system (gynecology for females; andrology for males) consists of the gonads (ovaries and testes) that produce oocytes (eggs) and sperms, the ducts that transport them, and the genitalia that enable their union. After conception, the female reproductive tract nourishes and delivers the fetus

    The endocrine system (endocrinology) consists of discrete ductless glands (such as the thyroid gland) as well as isolated and clustered cells of the gut and blood vessel walls and specialized nerve endings that secrete hormones. Hormones are organic molecules that are carried by the circulatory system to distant effector cells in all parts of the body. The influence of the endocrine system is thus as broadly distributed as that of the nervous system. These glands influence metabolism and other processes, such as the menstrual cycle











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    Various adjectives, arranged as pairs of opposites, describe the relationship of parts of the body in the anatomical position and compare the position of two structures relative to each other (Fig. I.4).
    Superficial, intermediate, and deep describe the position of structures relative to the surface of the body or the relationship of one structure to another underlying or overlying structure


    Medial is used to indicate that (in the anatomical position) a structure, such as the 5th digit of the hand (little finger), is nearer to the median plane of the body than the other digits. Conversely, lateral stipulates that a structure, such as the 1st digit of the hand (thumb), is farther away from the median plane. Lateral and medial are not synonymous with the terms external (outer) and internal (inner). External and internal mean farther from and nearer to the center of an organ or cavity, respectively, regardless of direction


    Posterior (dorsal) denotes the back surface of the body or nearer to the back. Anterior (ventral) denotes the front surface of the body. Rostral is often used instead of anterior when describing parts of the brain; it means toward the rostrum (L. from beak); however, in humans it denotes nearer the anterior part of the head e.g. the frontal lobe of the brain is rostral to the cerebellum



    Inferior refers to a structure that is situated nearer the sole of the foot. Caudal (L. cauda, tail) is a useful directional term that means toward the tail region, represented in humans by the coccyx, the small bone at the inferior (caudal) end of the vertebral column. The term caudal is used in embryology because the human embryo has a tail-like caudal eminence until the middle of the 8th week (Moore and Persaud, 2003). Superior refers to a structure that is nearer the vertex, the topmost point of the cranium. Cranial relates to the cranium (Mediev. L. skull) and is a useful directional term, meaning toward the head.
    Combined terms describe intermediate positional arrangements: inferomedial means nearer to the feet and median plane for example, the anterior parts of the ribs run inferomedially; superolateral means nearer to the head and farther from the median plane


    Proximal and distal are used when contrasting positions nearer to or farther from the attachment of a limb or the central aspect of a linear structure, respectively. Dorsum usually refers to the superior or posterior (back) surface of any part that protrudes anteriorly from the body, such as the dorsum of the tongue, nose, penis, or foot. It is also used to describe the back of the hand. It is easier to understand why these surfaces are considered posterior if one thinks of a quadripedal plantigrade animal that walks on its palms and soles, such as a bear. The sole indicates the inferior aspect or bottom of the foot, much of which is in contact with the ground when standing barefoot. The palm refers to the flat of the hand, exclusive of the thumb and other fingers, and is the opposite of the dorsum of the hand















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      abdulla20

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      beautiful bird

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      abdulla20

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  19. #19
      kotore

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